Chapter 03 Social Beliefs

Chapter 3 Study Questions


What is System 1 thinking? System 2 thinking?

What is “priming”? How does priming affect perception and cognition? Be able to generate and recognize research examples of priming.

What is the “overconfidence phenomenon”? How do we measure overconfidence?

What is the “confirmation bias”? How does this affect us in our daily lives?

How can we decrease our overconfidence?

What does the word “heuristic” mean? Why do people use heuristics when making decisions or judgments?

What is the representativeness heuristic? Be able to provide and recognize examples.

What is the availability heuristic? Be able to provide and recognize examples.

What is “counterfactual thinking”?  How can counterfactuals boost or depress our moods? (i.e., what are upward and downward comparisons?)

Define and give examples of illusory correlation.

Define and give examples  of illusion of control.

How does our mood affect our judgments?

Be able to understand the effect of preconceptions on interpretation of information. For example, what is the effect of having an opinion on a topic (e.g., capital punishment) on the interpretation of data on the topic (e.g., reading a study about capital punishment)?

What is the definition of “belief perseverance”?

What are “false memories” and the “misinformation effect”?

What is the hindsight bias?

What does “attribution theory” mean?

When making attributions, what is an internal/dispositional attribution? What is an external/situational attribution?

What is the fundamental attribution error? Be able to provide some research support for the existence of this error.

What is the main cause of the fundamental attribution error?

What is the definition of self-fulfilling prophecy? Be able to provide research examples demonstrating this phenomenon. Why does it occur?