Chapter 05 The Self

Define “self-concept.”

Discuss the influence of culture on a person’s self-concept. Consider social identity theory and individualist vs. collectivist culture.

Define “sex” and “gender.” How do they influence self-concept? What is social role theory? Where do gender roles/behaviors come from? To what extent are men and women different or similar?

Define “self-schema.”

What are two ways that our self-schema influence how we perceive information?

How does our social situation influence our self-concepts?

How do we create our own self-concept? Discuss appraisals of others, comparisons with others, and self-perception.

In comparing the self to others, what is a downward comparison? What is an upward comparison? Be able to give/recognize examples of both.

Define “self-regulation.” Why do humans have the capacity for self-regulation? (There are 3 reasons)

What is the “self-awareness theory”?

What are four ways that researchers raise a person’s own self-awareness? What happens when people have a higher self-awareness?

What is the “actual self”? What is the “ought self”? What is the “ideal self”? What happens to people’s emotions when the ought or ideal self is discrepant from the actual self?

How does time play a role in our self-regulation? How does our thinking or behavior change when considering near-term vs. long-term possibilities?

What is affective forecasting? How can we increase the accuracy of affective forecasting?

People face challenges to self-regulation. Explain how the “hot” and “cool” systems work in the practice of willpower.

Name/describe strategies for turning on the cool system.

What is the trait “consideration of future consequences”? What life outcomes vary between those who are high vs. low in this trait?

What happens to us when we try NOT to think about something? What is “ironic processing”? What are two ways to minimize ironic processing?