Chapter 06 Early childhood

Chapter 6

How does physical growth change during early childhood?

Describe the changes in brain development that take place during early childhood. What is happening with neurons? Which area of the brain is growing the fastest?

What are the leading causes of injury and mortality during early childhood in developed (U.S.) and developing countries?

Describe changes in gross and fine motor abilities during early childhood.

Explain the features of Piaget’s preoperational stage of cognitive development. What can children do now that they could not as toddlers? What can children still not do?

Define and give/recognize examples of: conservation, egocentrism, and classification.

What is “theory of mind”? Describe and/or recognize examples of a child showing (or failing to show) theory of mind.

Identify and describe the four elements that are most important in preschool quality.

Describe early intervention programs and their outcomes. Specifically, discuss Project Head Start. What is it? What influence does it have, and not have, in children/families?

Describe language development in early childhood. What does “sensitive/critical period” mean? What is happening with grammar ability?

Why do extreme emotional expressions decline in early childhood? Describe some strategies that children use to self-regulate.

Why does empathy increase at this age? How is empathy related to the development of sociomoral emotions and/or moral development?

Name, describe, and give examples of four methods that cultures use to teach their moral rules.

How does gender understanding change during early childhood? How do parents and peers play a role in gender socialization?

What is a “gender schema”? How do children self-socialize in relation to these schemas?

Name and describe the two dimensions of parenting. Explain how these yield four parenting styles. Name and describe the four types of parenting styles.

Identify outcomes associated with parenting styles (in white middle-class families). Describe reciprocal/bidirectional effects.

What is “corporal punishment”? What are some of the correlations (in Western countries) with use of corporal punishment? How are these correlations different between African-American and white-American families? Why is there a difference?

Define and describe four variations of child maltreatment.

Name and describe the child risk factors and parental risk factors for child maltreatment.

Describe the four destructive effects child maltreatment can have on children. What can be done to prevent child maltreatment?

How do socializing/friendships change from toddlerhood to early childhood? How does playing change from toddlerhood through early childhood?

Identify the rates and correlates of TV viewing in early childhood.

Important terms to know/understand:

preoperational stage




theory of mind

early intervention program

sensitive period


gender constancy

gender roles

gender schema


parenting styles

authoritative parents

authoritarian parents

permissive parents

disengaged parents

reciprocal or bidirectional effects

corporal punishment