Chapter 12 Aggression

Define and give/recognize examples of “aggression.”

Define and give/recognize examples of “affective/hostile aggression” and “instrumental aggression.”

Is it reasonable to conclude that humans have evolved to be aggressive? Why or why not? (i.e., what is the evidence for or against this claim)

Compared with animals, humans have one trait that makes them more aggressive and one that makes them less aggressive. Name/describe these.

Define and give/recognize examples of “frustration” and of “displaced aggression.” Against whom are we most likely to demonstrate displaced aggression? (Note: This is also called scapegoating.)

Describe the effect of these variables on aggression: arbitrary/preventable frustration; attacks/insults; physical pain/discomfort; physical arousal.

Describe the research on how the presence of guns primes aggressive cognitions (i.e., the “weapons effect”). What is the key finding about the presence of weapons? What are two reasons for the effect?

Be aware of the data on gun violence in the U.S.

Describe how aggression can be learned via operant conditioning and via observational learning.

What does research show about the effect of violence in media? About exposure to violence in the family?

How does culture play a role in aggression? Discuss the American subculture of “culture of honor.” (What is it? Why does it exist? How does it influence behavior?)

There are individual difference factors that are related to aggression. Discuss the research on gender and intelligence.

What are other reasons for individual differences in aggression? Consider a hostile attributional bias, genetics, self-esteem, and impulsivity.

Define and give/recognize examples of these terms: “domestic violence,” “sexual coercion,” and “rape.”

Describe statistics on rape: What kind of rape is most common? How likely are women to know their rapists? Among college women, what percentage reports being sexually coerced? Raped?

What are “rape myths”? How does the U.S. culture promote belief in rape myths?

Define “catharsis.” Is engaging in catharsis an effective way to reduce aggression?

Your text outlines effective interventions at the societal, interpersonal, and individual levels. Know these.