Ch. 04 Infancy 2

Define infant temperament and describe its main dimensions.

Name and describe the three traditional types of temperament that we see in babies.

According to behaviorists, what was crucial for the mother-infant bond?

What did Harlow’s research show? (Where did the baby monkeys prefer to spend time?)

Who developed the “strange situation” paradigm? Briefly, what is the “strange situation”?

What are the four classifications of attachment? (Name and briefly describe.)

What does it mean to say that attachment is “bidirectional”?

What two qualities of the parent/caregiver are related to a secure attachment?

What qualities of a caregiver/parent are related to insecure attachment?

What qualities of the child are related to secure or insecure attachment?

Describe how attachment in infancy is related to (correlated with) later outcomes.  Which attachment style is correlated with the best outcomes? Which is correlated with the worst outcomes?

What does it mean to have self-awareness? At what age do children develop self-recognition?

What are two ways that researchers can demonstrate that children have self-recognition?

Describe three major impacts that poverty has on the developing infant/young child.

What are the qualities/characteristics of a good child-care setting during infancy/toddlerhood?

Identify the primary emotions and describe how they develop during infancy.

What are “social emotions”? How do toddlers’ emotions differ from those of infants?

Briefly describe Erikson’s theory of social development. According to Erikson, what is the “crisis” that infants have to resolve? What is the crisis that toddlers have to resolve?

What are the four advances of emotional self-regulation that happen during toddlerhood?

Terms to understand

  • Social smile
  • Separation anxiety
  • Stranger anxiety
  • Social referencing
  • Synchrony