Ch. 03 Infancy 1

Be able to identify these parts of a neuron: cell body, dendrites, axon, and axon terminal. What is a synapse? What is myelin?

What are the two things that lead to the brain’s growth in infancy?

What are the four lobes of the cortex? What important function happens in the frontal lobe?

What is synaptic pruning? Why does it happen?

What is plasticity? How does it affect the infant brain?

Describe neonatal reflexes. Specifically, be able to describe/recognize the Moro, rooting, and grasping reflex. What do they look like? When do they disappear?

Identify the advantages of breast-feeding. Note which are correlational results.

What is the recommended duration for mothers to breast-feed?

What are some of the correlates of higher rates of breast-feeding in the U.S.? (What variables are linked to mothers being more likely to breastfeed?) What are three reasons why U.S. mothers stop  breast-feeding earlier than recommended?

What is colic?

What can happen if you shake a baby? What are good ways to soothe a crying baby?

Describe neonates’ patterns of waking and sleeping. How many hours (in 24) do neonates sleep? What percentage is REM sleep?

Name and describe the risk factors for SIDS, including the research evidence regarding cosleeping. What should parents/caregives do to reduce the risks of SIDS?

How do the infant’s body and weight change in the first year? What are the cephalocaudal principle and the proximodistal principle?

What do babies prefer to look at? How do we know? What is habituation?

Describe the major changes during infancy in gross and fine motor development. (What abilities do they have at what ages?)

Describe the sensorimotor stage. According to Piaget, what is it that babies/toddlers can do and cannot do during this stage?

What are: Deferred imitation, means-end behavior, and the A-not-B-error? Be able to give/recognize an example of each.

What is object permanence? When does it develop (according to Piaget)?

What are the major critiques of Piaget’s claims about the sensorimotor stage?

Describe the elements of the information processing model of cognitive functioning.

What is social cognition? How does it begin to show during infancy?

What is the research evidence for the claim that babies have an innate understanding of right and wrong? (Hint: Puppets video)

Terms to understand

  • Synaptogenesis
  • Myelination
  • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
  • Joint attention