Ch. 02 Prenatal/birth

Describe the process of fertilization and conception. What are the events of the germinal stage?

Identify when implantation takes place.

What is DNA? What are genes and chromosomes? How many genes and how many chromosomes does a typical person have?

Outline the major milestones of the embryonic period and identify when they take place.

Describe the major milestones of the fetal period and identify when viability occurs.

What is the optimal length of gestation? What are “trimesters”? What are the major events of each trimester?

Identify six major categories of teratogens. Give/recognize specific examples within each.

Be able to describe how a teratogen can exert its influence long after exposure.

Describe specifically what nicotine,  alcohol, and extreme stress do to developing fetuses.

What does chromosomal disorder mean?

What is Down syndrome? What causes it? How is mother’s/father’s age related to it?

What does genetic disorder mean?

What are the essentials of prenatal care?

Be able to describe variations in prenatal care within the U.S. How does race play a role? How does geography play a role?

Describe the four main techniques of prenatal diagnosis.

Name and describe the three stages of the birth process.

Name three common types of birth complications and explain how they can be overcome by cesarean delivery.

What are the five aspects of the Apgar scale? Name each aspect and what the evaluator is assessing. How does the evaluator arrive at the score?

When do we use the Apgar scale? What do the total scores mean?

What is the criterion for low birth weight? For premature delivery?

Describe some correlates of low birth weight and/or prematurity.

Describe the differences in maternal and neonatal mortality within the U.S., over time. How does the U.S. compare to peer nations?

Be able to describe the relationship between race and both infant and maternal mortality within the U.S.

Terms to understand

  • Ovum
  • Ovulation
  • Zygote
  • Blastocyst
  • Implantation
  • Placenta
  • Neural tube
  • Proximodistal sequence
  • Cephalocaudal sequence
  • Umbilical cord
  • Amniotic sac
  • Miscarriage
  • Cortisol
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
  • In vitro fertilization
  • Cesarean section (c-section)