Chapter 13 Helping

What is prosocial behavior? Be able to recognize/provide examples.

There are several theories of why people help. Understand and be able to give/recognize examples of these theories of helping: evolutionary (kin selection, attachment, reciprocity), learning, social exchange, and empathy/altruism.

What evidence supports the theory that people evolved to be helpful?

What rewards might people get from helping? Focus on external and internal rewards.

How is helping influenced by various emotional states (e.g., guilt, sadness, happiness)?

What is the definition of empathy?

What kind of people are we most likely to help? What kind of people are we least likely to help?

What is the “empathy gap”? How can we minimize that?

How do people’s attributions about others influence the decision to help? What kinds of attributions lead to more helping? To less helping?

Name and describe four ways to prime people to be more helpful. Be able to give/recognize examples of each.

What is the “bystander effect”? Be able to describe research studies demonstrating this effect.

What is the 5-stage process people go through before deciding to help another person?

Describe research or influences at each of the five stages. How does having more bystanders play a role at each stage?

How does personality affect helping? (What kinds of people are more likely to be helpful?)

How does a person’s political leanings (liberal or conservative) correlate with decisions about helping? What are the five bases of making moral decisions?

How does gender influence helping? Who helps more?

How can we increase helping?

Will you as social psychology students now be more likely to help a person in need?