Ch. 01 Introduction

Define “lifespan development.”

How do these aspects of context affect human development: cohort, SES, culture, gender? Be able to describe and give/recognize examples these contexts.

How has life expectancy in the U.S. changed since 1900? What are some reasons for this change?

Understand these major theories previewed in chapter 1. For each theory, know the major person/people associated with it. Be able to compare and contrast the theories.

  • Traditional behaviorism
  • Cognitive behaviorism (social learning theory)
  • Psychoanalytic theory
  • Evolutionary psychology
  • Behavioral genetics

What is natural selection? How did it affect human development?

How do genes can shape the environment? Describe/understand evocative and active forces.

How does the environment shape the expression of genes?

What is the “nature vs. nurture” debate? What is the final answer to this debate? Be able to recognize influences from genes, from the environment, and from a blend.

What is the scientific method? (Name and describe the five steps.)

What is a hypothesis? How do psychologists test their hypotheses with observational research, correlational studies, and experiments?

What is a cross sectional design vs. a longitudinal design?

Define and give examples of positive correlation and negative correlation.

Which research method allows us to make conclusions about cause and effect?

What are the key ethical standards for human development research?

Terms to understand

  • Socioeconomic status (SES)
  • Developed countries
  • Developing countries
  • Collectivist cultures
  • Individualistic cultures
  • Theory
  • Nature
  • Nurture
  • Operant conditioning
  • Bidirectional
  • Reaction range
  • Epigenetics