What is happening in the brain during middle childhood?
How do motor skills change as we grow from early childhood into middle childhood? How has this changed over the last few decades in the US?
Describe overweight and obesity. What is the pattern over time in the US?
What are some of the consequences (or correlates) of being obese in childhood?
What are the causes/contributing factors to obesity?
How might epigenetics play a role in obesity?
Explain the features of Piaget’s concrete operational stage. What age range is involved?
What are the major cognitive advances that occur during this stage? (What can children do now?)
What are the limitations (things children can’t understand) of this stage?
What are two changes that happen to memory?
What are executive functions? How do they change from early to middle childhood?
Identify the characteristics of children who have ADHD and the types of treatment for ADHD.
Identify the rates of ADHD in the US and the relation to gender.
Define “self-concept.” How does it change in middle childhood? What are Harter’s five areas of self-concept?
Define “self-esteem.” How does it change in middle childhood?
What should parents and teachers do to promote healthy/realistic self-esteem? (There are two major strategies.)
What are the self-esteem distortions of children with externalizing vs. internalizing problems? What is the consequence for each type of child?
Describe Erikson’s stages for middle childhood. What is the central task of this stage?
What is “prosocial behavior?” How does this develop throughout childhood?
How can parents and teachers encourage children to behave prosocially and to internalize this norm? (You should have six ways.)
What is aggression? What are the two motivations for aggression?
What are the two forms that aggression can take? How do these forms change throughout childhood/life?
What is bullying? What are the two categories of victims?
What is cyberbullying? What are three reasons for children (teens, adults) to engage in cyberbullying?
What are the major strategies parents/adults can use to reduce bullying?
Terms to understand
- Emotional regulation
- Proactive aggression
- Reactive aggression
- Direct aggression
- Relational aggression
- Hostile attributional bias